Ticks are small spider-like insects that feed by inserting their mouths into the skin of a host and slowly taking in blood. During the feeding process they can transmit infections through their saliva. The tick´s saliva also has a numbing effect and so the bite can go unnoticed. In Central Europe the two most common diseases transmitted by ticks are Tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme Disease.
What is Tick-borne encephalitis?
Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) is also known as spring-summer encephalitis or Fruehsommer – Meningoenzephalitis (FSME) in German. It is a viral infection. Although the most common way to get the disease is from an infected tick, it can also be passed on by drinking non-pasteurized dairy products from infected cows, goats, or sheep.
The virus causes encephalitis which is an infection of the brain. It usually starts with a flu-like illness 1-2 weeks after the tick bite, which may be followed a few days later by headache, neck stiffness, and confusion. Coma can occur, and between 1 and 5% of people infected will die. Of those who recover some will have permanent brain damage.
TBE is common in Austria, Estonia, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine as well as Hungary. The risk of acquiring the disease is greatest between March and October as this is the peak biting season for the ticks. There is no medical cure for TBE. Prevention is therefore very important.
What is Lyme Disease?
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe.
Flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscular pains may appear about 1-4 weeks after the tick bite. There may also be a rash on the skin at the site of the tick bite. This is very characteristic. The area around the bite becomes red and slowly expands. It may enlarge for several weeks. The center of the rash clears giving a “bulls-eye” appearance.
Without treatment, up to 75% of those infected will develop problems later in life. These complications can affect the brain (meningitis, encephalitis), the heart, the skin, the eyes, the muscles, and the joints. Most patients can be successfully treated with antibiotics if the diagnosis is made early enough.
Who is at risk?
Ticks are most commonly found in forests and woodland areas, especially where there is heavy undergrowth. There is a small risk that ticks may be present in your garden. Those at the highest risk are who go walking or camping in wooded areas and all those who consume unpasteurized dairy products.
How to remove a tick?
Remove the tick using special tick tweezers or “spoon” available in pharmacies. Grasp it by the neck making sure you are not compressing it and pull it out. If the head breaks in do not worry, it will get thrust out as a sting would.
Can these diseases be prevented?
Taking sensible precautions to avoid tick bites is an important preventative measure. When walking in long grass or undergrowth wear suitable clothing that covers arms, legs, and ankles. Insect repellants that contain DEET are effective and can be applied directly to the skin. Unpasteurized dairy products should be avoided. After visiting a high-risk area check your clothes and skin for ticks. The attached ticks should be removed promptly. The longer they are attached, the greater the risk of disease.
There is an effective vaccine available against TBE, however, this does not protect against Lyme disease. The recommended regime is 3 doses of the vaccine, the second dose usually being given 1 to 3 months after the first (this can be shortened to 2 weeks if necessary). The third dose is given 5 to 12 months after the 2nd dose. This way protection will be provided for 3 years. A booster injection three years after the last dose will prolong immunity.
This vaccine is available at FirstMed, to make an appointment, please call +36 1 2249090.